American Literary Periods


colonial period american literature

Writing style of the Puritans which was dry, but direct. Way that Native American literature was passed on. Largest group of Native Americans to settle in the Americas. Writing style of . Early American and Colonial Period to American literature begins with the orally transmitted myths, legends, tales, and lyrics (always songs) of Indian cultures. There was no written literature among the more than different Indian languages and tribal cultures that existed in North America before the first Europeans arrived. Colonial American literature emerged from the original U.S. colonies during the period from to the late s and was largely influenced by British writers. Many of the characteristics of colonial American literature can be found in the poems, journals, letters, narratives, histories and teaching materials written by settlers and religious and historic figures of the period.

American Literature/Colonial Period (s) - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Byhowever, England had established a dominant presence on the Atlantic coast. The first colony was founded at Jamestown, Virginia, in Many of the people who settled in the New World came to escape religious persecution. The Pilgrims, founders of Plymouth, Massachusetts, arrived in In both Virginia and Massachusetts, the colonists flourished with some assistance from Native Americans.

New World grains such as corn kept the colonists from starving while, in Virginia, tobacco provided a valuable cash crop. By the early s enslaved Africans made up a growing percentage of the colonial population. Richard Mather and John Cotton provided clerical leadership in the dominant Puritan colony planted on Massachusetts Bay.

Thomas Hooker was an example of those who settled new areas farther west according to traditional Puritan standards. Most of these men held ideas in the mainstream of Calvinistic thought. In addition to believing in the absolute sovereignty of God, the total depravity of man, and the complete dependence of human beings on divine grace for salvation, they stressed the importance of personal religious experience.

These Puritans insisted that they, as God's elect, had the duty to direct national affairs according to God's will as revealed in the Bible. This union of church and state to form a holy commonwealth gave Puritanism direct and exclusive control over most colonial activity until commercial and political changes forced them to relinquish it at the end of the 17th century.

Because of its diffuse nature, when Puritanism began to decline in America is difficult to say. Some would hold that it lost its influence in New England by the early 18th century, but Jonathan Edwards and his able disciple Samuel Hopkins revived Puritan thought and kept it alive until Others would point to the gradual decline in power of Congregationalism, but Presbyterians under the leadership of Jonathan Dickinson and Baptists led by the example of Isaac Backus - revitalized Puritan ideals in several denominational forms through the 18th century.

During the whole colonial period Puritanism had direct impact on both religious thought and cultural patterns in America. In the 19th century its influence was indirect, but it can still be seen at work stressing the importance of education in religious leadership and demanding that religious motivations be tested by applying them to practical situations.

If he have nothing but his hands, he may Rather than being entrepreneurs like many of the settlers of Jamestown, a significant proportion of the citizens of Plymouth were fleeing religious persecution and searching for a place to worship as they saw fit. The social and legal systems of the colony became closely tied to their religious beliefs, as well as English custom. However, most Puritans in both England and New England were non-separatists, colonial period american literature.

They continued to profess their allegiance to the Church of England despite their dissent from Church leadership and practices, colonial period american literature. However, the Great Migration of Puritans was relatively short-lived and not as large as is often believed. From through approximately 21, Puritans emigrated to New England. She is credited as being the first American poet. Thomas Paine was born in England into a Quaker father and an Anglican mother.

At the age of 13, he began working with his father as a corset maker, colonial period american literature, and he later worked as an officer of the excise, colonial period american literature, hunting smugglers, and collecting liquor and tobacco taxes. He did not excel at this job, colonial period american literature, nor at any other early job, and his life in England was, in fact, colonial period american literature by repeated failures, colonial period american literature.

In the summer ofPaine published "The Case of the Officers of Excise," a page article in defense of higher pay for excise officers. It was his first political work, and he spent that winter in London, handing out the 4, copies of the article to colonial period american literature of Parliament and other citizens.

In spring ofcolonial period american literature, Paine was fired from the excise office, and began to see his outlook as bleak. At this time, Paine began writing in earnest, publishing several articles, anonymously or under pseudonyms, colonial period american literature. One of his early articles was a scathing condemnation of the African slave trade, called "African Slavery in America," which he signed under the name "Justice and Humanity.

American Literature: The Dream. Search this site. American Novels. Literary Periods in Chronological Order. Literary Terms. Colonial period american literature Colonial Period European nations came to the Americas to increase their wealth and broaden their influence over world affairs. The Spanish were among the first Europeans to explore the New World and the first to settle in what is now the United States. Early in the 17th century some Puritan groups separated from the Church of England.

Among these were the Pilgrims, who in founded Plymouth Colony. Ten years later, under the auspices of the Massachusetts Bay Colonial period american literature, the first major Puritan migration to New England took place. The Puritans brought strong religious impulses to bear in all colonies north of Virginia, but New England was their stronghold, and the Congregationalist churches established there were able to perpetuate their viewpoint about a Christian society for more than years.

Jamestown Some traditional scholars of early Jamestown history believe that those pioneers could not have been more ill-suited for the task. Because Captain John Smith identified about half of the group as "gentlemen," it was logical, indeed, for historians to assume that these gentry knew nothing of or thought it beneath their station to tame a wilderness.

By one account, they landed there because the deep water channel let their ships ride close to shore; close enough to moor them to the trees. Almost immediately after landing, the colonists were under attack from what amounted to the on-again off-again enemy, the Algonquian natives.

As a result, in a little over a month's time, the newcomers managed to "beare and plant palisadoes" enough to build a wooden fort. Captain John Smith. Plymouth Plantation. William Bradford. The Great Migration, colonial period american literature.

Puritan Plain Style. The plain style is the simplest of the three classical forms of style. In choosing the plain style, Puritan writers eschewed features common to the rhetoric of the day; they declined to stuff their sermons with the rhetorical flourishes and learned colonial period american literature of the metaphysical style of sermon, believing that to be the province of Archbishop Laud and his followers.

The Puritan sermon traditionally comprised three parts: doctrine, reasons, and uses. Anne Bradstreet. The Great Awakening. The Great Awakening was a period of great revivalism that spread throughout the colonies in the s and s.

It deemphasized the importance of church doctrine and instead put a greater importance on the individual and their spiritual experience. The Great Awakening arose at a time when man in Europe and the American colonies were questioning the role of the individual in religion and society.

It began at the same time as the Enlightenment which emphasized logic and reason and stressed the power of the individual to understand the universe based on scientific laws. Similarly, individuals grew to rely more on a personal approach to salvation than church dogma and doctrine. Following are significant facts to remember about the Great Awakening: It pushed individual religious experience over established church doctrine, thereby decreasing the importance and weight of the clergy and the church in many instances.

New denominations arose or grew in numbers as a result of the emphasis on individual faith and salvation. It unified the American colonies as it spread through numerous preachers and revivals. This unification was greater than had ever been achieved previously in the colonies.

Jonathan Edwards. Jonathan Edwards was a key American revivalist during the Great Awakening who preached for close to ten years in New England. He emphasized a personal approach to religion. He also bucked the puritan tradition and called for unity amongst all Christians as opposed to intolerance.

His most famous sermon was "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God," delivered in In this sermon he explained that salvation was a direct result from God and could not be attained by human works as the Puritans preached. Edward Taylor. Edward Taylor was born in Leicestershire, England in He studied divinity at Harvard and then became a minister in Massachusetts. The son of a non-Conformist yeoman farmer, Taylor was born in at Sketchley, Leicestershire, England.

Following restoration of the monarchy and the Act of Uniformity under Charles II, colonial period american literature, which cost Taylor his teaching position, colonial period american literature emigrated in to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in America.

The Age of Reason The Age of Reason was an eighteenth-century movement which followed hard after the mysticism, religion, and superstition of the Middle Ages. The Age of Reason represented a genesis in the way man viewed himself, the pursuit of knowledge, and the universe. Politically and socially, the imperial concepts of the medieval world were abandoned.

The Age of Reason included the shorter time period colonial period american literature as the Age of Enlightenment; during this time great changes occurred in scientific thought and exploration.

New ideas filled the horizon and man was eager to explore these ideas, freely. This was the basis of Christianity. Earth and emphasis on nature became the new dogma; miracles, prophecy, colonial period american literature, and religious rites were mere superstitions. Reason, philosophically, is defined as the ability to form and operate upon concepts in abstraction, narrowing information to its bare colonial period american literature, without emotion.

Rationality carries the dual implication of ordered inference and comprehension along with understanding and explanation. Rhetoric: Ethos, Pathos, Logos. Benjamin Franklin. Patrick Henry. Born on May 29, in Studley, Virginia, Patrick Henry was an American Revolution-era orator best know for his quote "Give me liberty or give me death.

Thomas Paine. Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson was born at Shadwell in what is now Albemarle County, Va.


Characteristics of Colonial American Literature | Pen and the Pad


colonial period american literature


Here are some of the most commonly agreed upon periods of American literature from the colonial period to the present. The Colonial Period (–) This period encompasses the founding of Jamestown up to a decade before the Revolutionary War. Writing style of the Puritans which was dry, but direct. Way that Native American literature was passed on. Largest group of Native Americans to settle in the Americas. Writing style of . Early American and Colonial Period to American literature begins with the orally transmitted myths, legends, tales, and lyrics (always songs) of Indian cultures. There was no written literature among the more than different Indian languages and tribal cultures that existed in North America before the first Europeans arrived.